16 September 2019, Name-day for Edyta, Kamil, Korneliusz. Anniversaries.

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HTML

HTML, an acronym for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document - by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, etc., and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of "tags" that are surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) that can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors.

In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was an independent contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliau each submitted separate proposals for an Internet-based hypertext system providing similar functionality. The following year, they collaborated on a joint proposal, the WorldWideWeb (W3) project, which was accepted by CERN.

The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called HTML Tags, first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 22 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Thirteen of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a text and image formatting language used by internet browsers to dynamically format web pages. The semantics of many of its tags can be traced to early text formatting languages such as runoff. Runoff was developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS (Compatible Time-Sharing System) operating system, and its formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. Runoff was later incorporated into the UNIX operating system in more advanced formatting programs such as roff, nroff, and troff.

Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). The last HTML specification published by the W3C is the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, published in late 1999. Its issues and errors were last acknowledged by errata published in 2001.

Main source: Wikipedia, GNU FDL